Key words

Science Science Art Maths English PE
chemical Alkali subject area advertise/ advertisement exercise
element Cell scene average autobiography/biography muscle
nutrient Fertilisation composition bisect alliteration heart rate/pulse
energy Organ shape calculate apostrophe umpire
force Photosynthesis form circumference cliché referee
reaction Indicator abstract distance conjunction tournament
data Neutralisation figurative distribution dialogue athlete/athletic
solution Concentration texture equation exclamation agile/agility
recycle Density depth equilateral triangle genre tactic
foetus Evaporation tone factor imagery hamstring
mammal Saturated focal point frequency metaphor triceps
mixture Renewable media gradient connotation biceps
recycle Resistance technique hexagon narrative/narrator relay
animal Voltage process increase onomatopoeia active/activity
acid Current equipment integer personification mobile/mobility
alkaline Ammeter observational mean playwright strategy
apparatus Voltmeter imaginative mode simile squad
condensation Balanced portrait negative soliloquy qualify
energy Unbalanced landscape obtuse angle prefix quadriceps
thermometer   investigate parallel suffix injury
temperature   illuminate perimeter synonym league
amphibian   acrylic quadratic equation homophone gym/gymnastic
invertebrate   collage radius tabloid/broadsheet field
reproduction   perspective reflex angle vocabulary medicine
combustion   spectrum simplify adjective/adverb pitch
particles   foreground symmetrical noun/verb official





D & T D & T Geography History Music RE PSHCE
Dessert Sequential Synthetic amenity bias choir Graphic score
Materials Rendering Inspiration atlas agriculture chord Stave notation
Vegetable 3D Production urban castle composer Quaver
Assembly Computer aided Prototype rural cathedral conductor Semibreve
Architectural Design – CAD Consumer economy catholic crotchet  
Artefact Computer Aided

Manufacture (CAM)

  infrastructure protestant dynamics  
Comparative tests Current   tourism/tourist religion harmony  
Component Resistance   transport monarchy instrument  
Constraint Solder   weather colony/colonisation Pitch  
Criteria Technique   glaciation constitution Lyrics  
Environment Primary research   contour conflict Major  
Model/modelling Analysis   desert invasion Minim  
Prototype Personal protective equipment (PPE)   latitude imperialism Minor  
Questionnaire COSHH – HSE   longitude independence Tempo  
Process Strippers   weather parliament Repeat  
Vacuum forming Long nose pliers   erosion propaganda Timbre  
High impact polystyrene Printed Circuit Board (PCB)


  estuary siege Pulse  
Chuck Copper   volcano rebel/rebellion double stopping  
Cross filing Fibre   physical republic pizzicato  
Draw filing Hem   granite government Brass  
Transistor Sewing   limestone disease woodwind  
Resistor Fabric   region/regional defence strings  
Ohms law Knitted   nation/national economy melody  
adhesive Stitch   pollution civilisation bar line  
Aluminium Technique   igneous rock reign staccato  
Ergonomic Material   sedimentary rock revolt/revolution legato  
Complementary Weave   metamorphic rock trade duration  
Flavour Thread   provision emigration texture  
Moulding Pattern   location chronology off beat  
Soldering recycle       Chromatic  
Tolerance Template       Rhythm  
Finish/finishing Scissors       Time signature  
Quality Needle       Treble clef  
Recycle Texture       ostinato  


D & T D & T D & T Geography History Music Music
PSHCE RE Drama ICT      
able/ability Bible/biblical voice Read Only Memory (ROM)      
achieve/achievement Buddhist/Buddhism Gesture Portable Document Format (PDF)      
addict/addiction Ritual Expression Universal Serial Bus (USB)      
approve/approval ceremony Movement Broadband      
communication Christian/Christianity Soundscape malware      
control commandment Physical Uniform Resource Locator (URL)      
dependant/ dependency creation Still image Hypertext Mark Up Language (HTML)      
discipline disciple/apostle Collaborate Kilobyte (KB)      
discussion Hindu/Hinduism Audience flashdrive      
effort Hymn Performer bitmap      
emotion/emotional Islam/Muslim Atmosphere vector      
encourage/ encouragement belief/believe Communicate Desktop Publishing (DTP)      
gender Jewish/Judaism improvisation download      
generous/generosity sect Spontaneous encryption      
involve/involvement pilgrim/pilgrimage Prepared Internet Service Provider (ISP)      
prefer/preference prophet Empathy gigabyte      
pressure synagogue Monologue Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)      
racism/racist Sikh/Sikhism Dialogue Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)      
reality temple/mandir Conscience alley input      
relationship worship character interactive      
represent/representative shrine   interface      
reward pray/prayer   Random Access Memory (RAM)      
sanction festival   macro      
sexism/sexist marriage   Terabyte (TB)      
stereotype faith   Megabyte (MB)      
able/ability symbol   Gigabyte (GB)      
achieve/achievement religious/religious          
addict/addiction moral/morality          
approve/approval Gurdwara          
dependant/ dependency            




Useful Connectives




As well as



In addition


More/Most important



Not only … but also

To begin with





Instead of



On the other hand

In contrast

Despite this

On the contrary




Above all

In particular









Most often











Later at x o’clock



By the time





In the same way



As with


Cause and Effect






As a result


This means that

Due to the fact that

This caused









Out of















As long as

Apart from
















To conclude



While it is true that

Despite the fact that

In spite of

Despite this





Re phrasing

In other words

That is to say

To put this more simply

Changing topic

Turning now to…

Now to consider…

By/In contrast…

Moving on to …

Summing up

In conclusion

In summary

To sum up


On the whole

In short

In brief

To conclude

So, to round off


This suggests…

This conveys…

This implies…

This shows…

This demonstrates…

This highlights…

This signifies…


For example

Such as

For instance

As revealed by

In the case of


I could have improved…

On reflection, I would have …

In the future, I would …

I have learned that…

The results showed that…

To overcome these difficulties…

Despite these setbacks …














Reading strategies

Skimming To locate information in a text, to glance through quickly to get the gist e.g. What is this

text about?

Scanning To extract relevant information from a text, a particular piece of information e.g. Which

artists are mentioned in the text?

Close reading for meaning/inference To read between the lines and understand the writer’s intentions; it involves careful reading

and usually involves looking back in order to examine the text in detail.

Evaluation To assess the value, reliability and relevance of sources such as newspaper articles, primary

and secondary sources.



Spelling Strategies

Strategy Example
Break the word into its separate sounds Wed-nes-day
Break the word into syllables Re-mem-ber
Break the word into its constituents


Use a mnemonic Necessary: never eat cake, eat salad sandwiches and remain young/ One collar, two

sleeves (one c, two ss)

Make a link to a word in the same family Bright, light, sight
Say the word exactly as it is spelt, rather than how it is pronounced d-i-a-r-y/b-u-s-i-n-e-s-s
Notice words within words There’s a rat within separate
Use clues from putting words together Bi + cycle = two + wheels
Apply knowledge of spelling patterns Spot, spotting, spotted
Learn by sight Look-cover-write-check







Word types

Proper noun People, places, days of the week, months: John, London, Saturday, November
Common noun Objects and anything that isn’t a proper noun: hat, ruler, pen, school
Pronoun Replace nouns: he, her, himself, herself, its, who
Determiner The, a/an, which, this
Adjective Describe nouns: big, small, green, brown
Preposition Tell you the position of something: above, below, next to
Verb Doing words: to run, to walk, to laugh, to cry, to sing
Adverb Mostly describe verbs: quickly, slowly, angrily, sadly; also describe adjectives, for example, particularly good
Conjunction Joining words: and, because, after, but, or
Qualifier/intensifier Very, quite, really, too










Writing Essentials                                                                   


  • All sentences start with a capital letter and end with a full stop, exclamation mark or question mark.
  • Names of places and people are proper nouns and always start with a capital letter regardless of where they are within a sentence, for example, London, Manchester, David Beckham and Mo Farrah.
  • Adjectives of nationality always have a capital letter, for example, British, English, French etc
  • Remember to use paragraphs to separate parts of your writing: start a new paragraph when you change the topic, time or viewpoint. If you forget to use paragraphs, go back and put in a paragraph mark (//).
  • Check you have used homophones correctly:


Weather and whether

v  The weather is dreadful today.

v  I don’t know whether to buy it or not.


To, too and two

v  We went to the cinema

v  She had too much homework.

v  We had to take two trains to get there.


There, they’re and their

v  The camp site is over there.

v  They’re going to the cinema tonight.

v  Their house is number 28.


Your and you’re

v  Your homework is very detailed.

v  You’re late for school.


Who’s and whose

v  Whose book is this?

v  Who’s going to the cinema tonight?


Sites and sights

v  The building site is a dangerous place to be during the day.

v  The beautiful blue sea ahead was a beautiful sight.


Allowed and aloud

v  I am allowed to stay out until 10pm tonight.

v  She read her essay aloud to the rest of the class.

Braking and breaking

v  The car was braking slowly as it came down the steep hill.

v  I am breaking the cake up into smaller pieces for everyone to share.

Threw and through

v  She threw the netball hard across the court

v  He walked through the Trafford Centre to the car park.











Help with grammar

  • Most sentences need a subject and a verb: The black cat ran into the road in front of the bus. Make sure the subject and verb agree: I was, you were
  • If you are writing about yourself, remember that you are always a capital I: I will be explaining …
  • Make sure singular and plurals agree:

Most of the meals are ready to be served.

Every seat in the cinema is sold.

Help with longer answers and essay writing

  • Underline the key words in the question – what are you being asked to do?


  • What is the purpose of the writing? Are you being asked to summarise, explain, justify, argue?  Are you writing a story or a report?


  • Check the FORM of your writing. Are you writing a report, a method, an evaluation, a newspaper article, an essay, an advert, a story? Are you writing in the first person ( I) or the third person (he/she)?


  • Think about your audience: are you writing for adults, children, parents?


  • Plan what you are going to write: use a mind map to collect and add to your ideas; use a flow diagram to plan your writing and write the key words alongside that you will need in each section or paragraph. As you write, cross off the words and ideas as you use them.


  • Start each paragraph with a TOPIC SENTENCE:

E.g. The purpose of the practical was to have knowledge and understanding of the functions of eggs.


  • Check you write in the right tense: the past, present or future: I was, I am or I will be/ I am going to. Make sure you write in the same tense throughout.


  • Think about PEA in English: make your point, support it with an example or a quotation then analyse your example/quotation


  • Use subject specific vocabulary; don’t use “filler” words such as “etc” or “stuff”


  • Don’t use slang e.g. “dump”, “rubbish”


  • Don’t use unspecific, unhelpful vocabulary such as “nice”, “great” , “good “ or “lovely”: use specific, subject vocabulary – key words.


  • Try to vary the way you start sentences. For example:

o   With a verb: Feeling tired, Jack took the bus home.

o   With an adverb: Eagerly, she began eating the cake.

o   With an adjective:  Cold and weary, they climbed the final summit of the mountain.

o   With a connective: As a result of the rain, the show was cancelled.


  • Try to use a range of punctuation including full stops, commas, question marks, exclamation marks ( don’t overuse these and only use ONE at a time), colons ( : ) and semi colons ( ;).



Writing checklist


The work has a title and date underlined with a ruler.  
I have used paragraphs to split up and organise my writing.  
I have checked spellings, particularly key words.  
New sentences start with a capital letter.  
Proper names (people and places) have a capital letter.  
I have written clearly and answered the question fully.  
My handwriting is neat and legible.  
I have used apostrophes correctly (belonging and contraction) and not on plurals.  
I have not used slang and have used a wide range of vocabulary.  
I have read my work through at least twice to check it makes sense and to remove errors.  


Common mistakes in writing


Practice is a noun; practise is a verb.

For example:

  1. “She needs to practise playing the recorder.”
  2. “I go to football practice on Tuesday after school


Focussed/focused: both are acceptable in the English language, but one “s” tends to be the more common modern spelling; same with focusing.


Targeted/targeting: no double “ t”





To affect is a verb

An/the effect is a noun

For example:

“A lack of revision badly affected John’s examination result.”

“John needs to thoroughly learn the effects of coastal erosion.”


“Should/could/would/might/may/will have”; never “of”!

For example:

You should have learned that work more thoroughly. This is a common mistake because it SOUNDS like ‘should of’ when you say it.  What you are actually saying is ‘should’ve’.




Apostrophes are used for two purposes:


o   Belonging: Steve’s car; Cara’s horse; the children’s playground; the man’s tie; the men’s football team; the woman’s house; the women’s gym; James’ homework; Jane’s homework; the students’ exam results (plural); the student’s exam results (singular); to change people’s minds. If the word ends in s, the apostrophe goes after the s; if the word doesn’t end in S, add apostrophe and  s


o   When letters have been missed out: won’t; don’t; you’re; they’re


Common errors with apostrophes:


  • Plurals do not have apostrophes: peas’, tomatoe’s, potatoe’s, time’s – none of these need an apostrophe when they are used as plurals.
  • The word SAYS never has an apostrophe.
  • The word ITS does not have an apostrophe when it is being used as a pronoun, for example, Stretford Grammar School is holding its annual Talent Show. The word ITS only needs an apostrophe if you can expand it into IT IS.

o   E.g. It’s cold today. (Apostrophe because letters have been missed out)

o   E.g. The dog has hurt its paw. (No apostrophe because the word is a pronoun)







v  A lot is TWO words, not one word.


v  Thank you is TWO words, not one word.


v  As well is TWO words, not one


v  The difference between:








o   OUR and ARE.